What is Working Capital – Know Its Benefits

Oct 13th 2023
What is Working Capital – Know Its Benefits

What is Working Capital? Working capital is a measure of the short-term financial health of the organization as a whole. It is calculated by subtracting current assets from current liabilities and is listed directly on the balance sheet.

Current assets refer to deposits in banks and assets that can be converted into cash in case of emergency. Current debt is debt that a person will repay within a year. Finally, working capital is the money left over from a person’s bank balance minus debts. Current assets include cash, loans, and inventory. Current liabilities include salaries, taxes, and interest.

From a general perspective, What is Working Capital is also used to measure the financial health of a company. The economy will be healthy if there is a large difference in the short run between the company’s assets and the individuals’ assets. If a company has more debt than its capital, its working capital will be weak, and its business will suffer. It may be closed.

Importance of Working Capital

The primary purpose of working capital is to finance operations, meet short-term obligations, and continue to have adequate working capital. It also pays employees and vendors to meet other obligations, such as taxes and interest, even if they encounter financial problems. Working capital is also used to support debt-free business growth. If the company does not want to take out a loan, it can take out a loan or another loan for working capital. Some financial groups have two main goals:

  1. Clarify goals and see how much money you have on hand at any given time
  2. Work with more businesses and maintain enough capital to pay off debts.

Important Aspects Of Working Capital

The 4 important aspects of working capital are given below:

1. Manage Liquidity

A business needs (roughly) enough cash to manage day-to-day operations. The advantage of working capital is that it helps meet this need. Financial institutions can get a clear picture of their financial health by assessing their capital needs. These funds can be arranged to provide sufficient capacity and sufficient cash for daily operations. Otherwise, liquidity issues could impact a company’s operations and brand image.

2. Earn Short-Term Profit

Sometimes, a company may have excess funds. On evaluating the working capital, if the company has a high current assets ratio, then it means it has more funds than its working capital requirements. The excess funds can be invested by the company to earn short-term profits.

3. Aids Decision Making

Working capital is important for a business as it helps make sound decisions. A working budget helps in calculating the daily budget. It helps the company evaluate its current financial situation. Therefore, the company can determine the amount and location of the money. Using a working capital loan means businesses can solve the problem of insufficient labour demand and secure financing for their day-to-day operations.

4. Business Value Added

Adequate working capital means that a company has cash and cash equivalents to cover its daily operations and short-term obligations. It increases the company’s confidence in the market. It makes communication better and more effective. It can add value to the business and improve the way the organization achieves its overall goals. In addition to explaining the importance of working capital, it is also necessary to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of working capital.

What is Working Capital Management

Working capital represents assets currently available for day-to-day operations. It is defined as current assets minus short-term liabilities, and among the items in question, inventories and trade receivables in the bank, accounts payable and accounts receivable are the most common items.

Many seemingly profitable businesses were forced to go bankrupt because they were unable to repay their short-term debts when they went bankrupt. Effective operational management is essential for the sustainability of a business.

Management work requires great care due to the impact of its products. For example, giving credit to customers can lead to increased sales. However, as customers wait longer for payment, the company’s cash position will decrease, increasing the need for bank overdrafts. The reported interest may exceed the profit from additional sales, especially if the bad debt situation increases.

Capital management is important for business management because:

  • Current assets constitute the majority of the total assets of some companies end
  • Business owners are more interested in money than income Close
  • The inability to control working capital and therefore income is the reason why the business does not work.

Scope of Working Capital Management:

Effectively managing working capital is crucial for the sustained operation of a business. The scope of working capital management encompasses overseeing current assets and liabilities to ensure liquidity and financial stability. By maintaining a balance between short-term assets and liabilities, businesses can optimize their cash flow, mitigate risks of insolvency, and enhance overall operational efficiency. Successful working capital management is pivotal in navigating the complexities of financial decision-making, impacting various aspects such as credit policies, inventory management, and accounts receivable. Business owners need to focus on the scope of working capital management to secure financial health and drive sustainable growth.

Eligibility For Working Capital Loans

Eligibility criteria for working capital loans in Investkraft will vary from borrower to borrower. Here are some tips for qualifying for a work loan.

  • Applicants must be 25 years of age or older.
  • The company must have been in operation for at least 3 years.
  • This business should not be blacklisted. < br>This transaction should not be placed in the Negative List.
  • The company should not have defaulted on previous loans.
  • Religious organizations, communities and NGOs should not be included in negative lists. 1

Documents Required For Working Capital

The documentation process to obtain working capital is very simple. The various documents required include:

  • Application form completed and signed by all applicants
  • Passport-size photograph of each borrower
  • Certificate proof of each borrower – (one of the following documents – Aadhar Card, PAN Card, Passport, Voter ID Card or Driving License)
  • Proof of Employment – depending on the type of job
  • Proof of valid business address – Telephone or electricity bill not older than 3 months
  • Financial documents – bank statements ( Banking transactions for the last 2 years and IT transactions for the last 2 years.)
  • GST Returns and Audit Reports

Types Of Working Capital

In its simplest form, working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities. However, there are many different types of working capital, each of which can be important for a company to better understand its short-term needs.

1. Permanent Working Capital

Permanent working capital is the capital that the company always needs to run the business without interruption. This is the minimum short-term capital required to operate.

  • Working capital

 Working capital is a part of permanent working capital. It is the part of fixed working capital used for day-to-day operations and is also the “prime part” of permanent working capital.

  • Reserve Working Capital

 Reserve working capital is another component of permanent working capital. Businesses may need additional working capital to respond to emergencies, seasonality or unforeseen events.

  • Variable Working Capital

A company just wants to know how its working capital fluctuates. For example, a company may choose to pay for inventory because it is a variable cost. However, the company will have monthly liability insurance that it does not have the option of losing. Fluctuating working capital is only variable liabilities over which the company has full control.

2. Gross Working Capital

Total working capital is all the current assets of the business before short-term liabilities are taken into account.

3. Net working capital

Net working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities.

Components Of Working Capital

Current Assets

Current assets are the business profits the company expects to earn over the next 12 months. The company has a claim or right to obtain financial benefits, including working capital, assuming that it will realize all of the following items in cash.

  • Cash and cash equivalents: The total amount of money a company has on hand. This includes certain types of investments, such as foreign currencies and mutual funds with low risk and short investment horizons.
  • Inventory: All unsold products are stored. This includes purchasing raw materials for production, some processed products, and finished products that have not yet been sold.
  • Income: Total income from products sold on credit. This should be clear of outstanding payments.
  • Notes Received: All revenues from other contracts are generally confirmed by the signed contract.
  • Prepaid Fees: All fees are paid in advance. Although it may be difficult to convert these assets into cash when cash is needed, they are still short-term and inclusive.

Current Liabilities

Current liabilities are all debts that the company owes or will owe within the next twelve months. The main purpose of working capital is to understand whether the company can cover all these debts with its current short-term assets.

  • Payments: All invoices that do not pay the supplier, raw materials, utilities, property taxes, rent, or other business expenses owed to foreigners. The invoice credit period is usually 30 days, so essentially all invoices are stored here.
  • Accounts Receivable: Total unpaid wages and salaries. According to the company’s salary payment plan, a maximum of one month’s salary can be received (in case the company only pays monthly salary). Otherwise, these liabilities will be short-term in nature.
  • Short-term portion of long-term debts: All short-term payments related to long-term debts. Consider a company that finances its warehouse and pays its debt monthly for 10 years. Payments for the next 12 months are considered short-term debt, and payments for the next 9 years are considered long-term debt. Only 12 months are taken into account when calculating the fee.
  • Income Earnings: All responsibilities of government institutions. These may be subject to tax liability for documents that are not due for several months; however, this income is generally short-term (earned within the next 12 months).
  • Revenue: Total amount allowed to be paid to partners. A company may decide not to pay dividends in the future but must fulfil its obligations to authorized funds.
  • Unearned Revenue: All of the capital received before the work is completed. If the company does not complete the work, it will have to return the money to the customer.


1. What Is Working Capital?

Working Capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities.

2. What Are Some Examples of Current Assets?

Cash, Accounts Receivable, marketable securities, inventories, prepaid expenses/expenses paid in advance, supplies on hand.

3. What Are Some Examples of Current Liabilities?

Accounts payable, accrued expenses/expenses paid in arrears, short-term loans, deferred revenue.

4. What Type of Business Generally Has a High Working Capital Requirement?

A business with a higher sales-to-receivables ratio would have a higher Working Capital requirement. For example, an industry that generally has a 3:5 sales-to-receivables ratio would have a higher Working Capital requirement than an industry with a 1:1 ratio.

5. What Is The Relationship Between Working Capital and Short-Term Liquidity?

A business needs adequate levels of both long-term liabilities and Working Capital to ensure that it has sufficient short-term liquidity, or cash in hand.

6. How Is Working Capital Calculated?

Working capital is calculated by subtracting short-term liabilities from the company’s current assets. For example, if a company has current assets of $100,000 and current liabilities of $80,000, working capital would be $20,000. Examples of current assets include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory. Examples of current liabilities include accounts payable, current liabilities, or the current portion of deferred revenue.

The Conclusion

Working capital is very important for maintaining the solvency of the business. A positive WC indicates good short-term business health. A business with a good WC ratio can meet all current liabilities and is considered financially sound. But ultimately this is just a sample analysis.

Compared to resource management, supply chain finance is a more efficient and robust approach. It allows you to run your business without interruption and at the same time allows you to make the most of emerging business opportunities. This is a simple and reliable way of financing businesses that need regular working capital. So, if you are stuck and need short-term financing, chain financing makes a lot of financial sense.

Reach out to Investkraft to learn more about how supply chain finance can help overcome many business challenges. We will be happy to assist you.

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