How Does the RBI Regulate P2P Lending in India 2024?

May 28th 2024
RBI Regulate P2P Lending in India 2024

P2P lending has grown significantly in India, becoming an important part of the financial ecosystem. The RBI’s decision to regulate these platforms as NBFCs was expected, as it had been in the pipeline for a while. This move reflects the ongoing restructuring in the way debt is being raised by entities in India. 

P2P lending platforms have been increasingly regulated by financial authorities globally due to their potential negative impact on domestic financial markets. The emergence of these platforms was a result of Fintech services worldwide, prompting a need for oversight. As a result, major economies like the US and China swiftly implemented regulations to control the activities of these platforms. 

What is the Concept of P2P Lending?

P2P lending, also known as peer-to-peer lending, is a direct form of borrowing and lending where individuals or businesses can directly connect without involving a traditional financial institution. This process mainly occurs through online platforms that match lenders with borrowers. 

P2P lending mainly provides unsecured personal loans, although it also offers secured loans occasionally, usually backed by luxury goods. However, the majority of loans in the P2P lending industry are unsecured. Due to its distinct attributes, peer-to-peer lending is seen as an alternative financing option. 

We have discussed peer-to-peer lending in detail in our article. Before you understand how P2P lending is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India, we suggest you read our in-depth article on this mechanism of lending. 

When Did the RBI Arrive with the Instructions to Regulate P2P Lending in India?

The RBI released the master directions on October 4th, 2017, following an extensive analysis of the potential impacts and implications of regulating P2P lending in India, similar to regulations in countries such as the United Kingdom, USA, China and Australia. 

The master directions provided some operational and financial guidelines but many questions remained unanswered, confusing the sector. To address this, on January 04th, 2017, the RBI issued FAQs for NBFC-P2P platforms, which is significant considering the ambiguity around the resemblance of services provided by DSAs to that of P2P platforms. This led to uncertainty about whether DSAs would need to register as NBFC-P2P. 

Registration Process to Become an RBI-Compliant P2P Platform

In this section, we will discuss all the steps that RBI has outlined for prospective P2P platforms in India. In this section, we will discuss the eligibility criteria, application process and other obligations that both lenders and borrowers must fulfil to become a peer-to-peer platform. 

Eligibility Criteria to Register as a NBFC-P2P Platform

The eligibility criteria specified for registration as an NBFC P2P platform are - 

  • Only NBFCs are permitted to engage in peer-to-peer lending activities. This regulation ensures that P2P lending platforms are operated by licensed financial entities, providing a level of security and oversight for borrowers and lenders participating in the lending process
  • All NBFCs, regardless of whether they are starting or already operating as P2P lending platforms, must obtain a Certificate of Registration (CoR) from the RBI
  • To seek registration with the RBI, an NBFC-P2P must have a minimum net owned fund of 2 crore rupees
  • The RBI has set strict criteria for companies seeking registration, requiring them to be incorporated in India with a strong IT system. Additionally, the management must demonstrate a commitment to acting in the public interest and the directors and promoters must meet suitability standards set by the RBI

Application Process

The NBFC-P2P needs to apply for obtaining prior approval from the bank. The application should be on the company letterhead and include certain documents. The application should be submitted to the Regional Office of the Department of Non-Banking Supervision where the company is registered. 

  • Provide information about the proposed Directors and shareholders in the prescribed format
  • Sources of funding for the proposed shareholders to acquire shares in the NBFC-P2P
  • The proposed Directors and shareholders must provide a declaration confirming that they have no affiliation with any unincorporated entity that accepts deposits. This declaration ensures compliance with regulations and helps prevent potential financial misconduct. It is an important step in demonstrating the integrity and transparency of the individuals involved in the company
  • Confirmation by the proposed Directors/shareholders stating their non-association with any company whose CoR application has been rejected by the Bank
  • The proposed Directors/shareholders must declare that they have no criminal convictions or pending cases against them. This includes proceedings initiated under Section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act of 1881
  • Bankers' Report on the proposed Directors/shareholders. 

What are the Key Regulatory Pillars for a Secure P2P Ecosystem in India?

Peer-to-peer (P2P) ecosystems offer a range of innovative applications but also present unique challenges in terms of security and trust. To ensure a thriving and secure P2P environment, a balanced regulatory framework is necessary. Here are some key regulatory pillars to consider:



User Identification and Verification

  • Know Your Customer (KYC): P2P platforms should adopt KYC procedures to verify user identities, just like traditional financial institutions. This will deter illegal activities and ensure accountability
  • Pseudonymous vs. Anonymous Transactions: Regulations play a crucial role in determining the permissible level of anonymity in transactions. Complete anonymity may pose certain risks, so pseudonymity, where identities are identifiable but not publicly known, can be a suitable middle ground for the specific use case

Dispute Resolution Mechanisms

  • Clear and Enforceable Terms of Service (ToS): P2P platforms must prioritize the establishment of clear and enforceable Terms of Service (ToS) that outline user rights, responsibilities and dispute resolution procedures in an accessible manner. These procedures need to be efficient and fair to ensure equal access for all platform users
  • Third-Party Arbitration or Mediation: One option is to create a neutral third-party entity that can handle disputes between users when direct resolution is not possible. This entity can either facilitate arbitration or mediation to find a fair solution. This approach provides a way for users to resolve conflicts in a more objective and impartial manner

Data Security and Privacy

  • Data Protection Regulations: P2P platforms must ensure compliance with data protection regulations. This includes adhering to regulations regarding the collection, storage and usage of user data to protect the privacy and rights of users
  • Encryption Standards: Regulations can require strong encryption standards to safeguard user data on the P2P network, both during storage and transmission

Content Moderation and Illegal Activity Prevention

  • Prohibited Content and Activities: Regulations are essential for defining the types of content or activities that are not allowed on P2P platforms. This typically includes prohibiting actions like copyright infringement and the sale of illegal goods. These rules help maintain a safe and legal environment for users and ensure compliance with regulatory standards
  • Cybersecurity Measures: P2P platforms must prioritize implementing robust cybersecurity measures to effectively detect and prevent cyberattacks, fraudulent activities and money laundering. By doing so, they can ensure the safety and security of their users’ data and transactions, ultimately building trust and reliability within the platform. This proactive approach is crucial in safeguarding against potential threats and maintaining a secure environment for all users

Regulatory Flexibility and Innovation

  • Risk-Based Approach: Regulations should be tailored to the type of P2P activity and its potential risks, allowing for innovation while maintaining necessary safeguards
  • Regulatory Sandboxes: Regulatory sandboxes offer a controlled framework for P2P startups to test and improve their models without risking failure in a real-world setting. This enables them to innovate and make necessary adjustments before fully deploying their services


How Regulations Have Impacted Borrowers and Lenders?

Financial regulations are put in place to ensure a stable and equitable lending environment for borrowers and lenders. These rules can greatly influence the loan process, the terms of the loan and the overall experience for both parties involved. Let us explore the specific ways in which regulations affect borrowers and lenders. 

Impact on Borrowers

  • Access to Credit: Stricter regulations can make it harder for some borrowers to qualify for loans, with more thorough credit assessment leading to rejections for those with limited credit history or lower income
  • Loan Terms: Regulations affect loan terms. Compliance costs may result in higher interest rates. Regulations also set loan-to-value ratios for mortgages, limiting borrowing
  • Consumer Protection: Regulations protect borrowers from predatory lending by ensuring transparency in loan terms and limiting lenders’ ability to repossess collateral or foreclose on properties in case of default, providing financial protection for borrowers

Impact on Lenders

  • Risk Management: Regulations reduce excessive risk taken by lenders and require them to maintain sufficient reserves, making the financial system more stable and lowering the risk of bank failures
  • Compliance Costs: Lenders face high costs when implementing and following regulations. These costs, such as staff training, process development and record-keeping can be transferred to borrowers as higher rates and fees
  • Market Stability: Regulations play a crucial role in maintaining market stability. They discourage risky lending practices, reducing the likelihood of financial crises and promoting a healthy credit market. This, in turn, provides lenders with a secure and predictable business environment, leading to long-term benefits

How RBI Regulations Instil Confidence in Lenders?

The RBI is responsible for ensuring a stable financial environment in India. Its regulations serve as a guardrail for lenders, enhancing trust and confidence in the lending process. These regulations play a critical role in fostering a secure and reliable financial system in the country. 

  • Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR): CAR is a regulation requiring banks to hold a minimum capital buffer based on their risk-weighted assets. A higher CAR helps banks have enough resources to handle potential losses and continue lending, even in tough economic times. This rule protects lenders from excessive risks taken by banks. 
  • Income Recognition and Provisioning: RBI sets accounting norms for banks, ensuring timely income recognition and provisioning for bad loans. This transparency helps lenders assess borrowers’ financial health and make informed lending decisions.  
  • On-Site Inspections and Audits: The RBI conducts regular inspections of banks and assesses their compliance with regulations and risk management practices. These inspections help identify and address potential issues at an early stage, ensuring that lender confidence is not affected. 
  • Liquidity Risk Management: RBI regulations require banks to have effective liquidity risk management in place to ensure they can meet their short-term obligations. By maintaining adequate liquidity, banks can ensure they have enough cash available to fulfil their obligations to depositors and continue their lending activities without disruptions. This helps to safeguard the stability and confidence in the banking system. 
  • Loan Classification and NPA Norms: RBI guidelines classify loans based on repayment performance, helping lenders identify potential defaults early and take corrective actions to minimize losses. This system, known as Non-Performing Assets or NPAs plays a crucial role in enabling financial institutions to manage risk effectively and maintain the health of their loan portfolios. 
  • Debt Recovery Mechanisms: The RBI empowers lenders with debt recovery mechanisms such as tribunals and debt recovery agencies to legally recoup their investments. These mechanisms enable lenders to enforce loan contracts and recover outstanding dues. 
  • Interest Rate Regulation: RBI sets guidelines for interest rates to maintain stability and fairness in lending. This helps prevent extreme price fluctuations and predatory lending. 
  • Disclosure Requirements: The Reserve Bank of India requires banks to disclose detailed financial information publicly, promoting transparency in the banking sector. This disclosure enables lenders to evaluate the financial status of potential borrowing institutions and make well-informed choices regarding interbank lending. 


The article delved into the changing P2P lending scene in India with a special focus on the effects of the RBI’s regulations. The importance of creating a safe and reliable environment is paramount as P2P platforms gain prominence in the financial landscape. 

The RBI’s move to regulate P2P platforms as NBFCs is a significant step as it brings them within the purview of established financial regulations. This decision is expected to enhance trust and confidence among lenders and borrowers by ensuring compliance with minimum net-owned funds and robust IT infrastructure. 

Regulations are in place to ensure that borrowers have access to fair loan terms and are protected from predatory practices. Lenders, on the other hand, benefit from reduced risk due to stricter credit assignments and capital adequacy requirements. 

The RBI’s secure regulatory framework creates a conducive environment for P2P lending, benefiting both borrowers and lenders. This allows P2P platforms to contribute significantly to India’s inclusive financial growth. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: Who can operate a P2P lending platform in India?

A: The Reserve Bank of India has strict regulations regarding P2P lending in India, allowing only NBFCs with a specific P2P lending license to operate such platforms. These NBFC-P2Ps are required to adhere to a set of stringent regulations to ensure responsible lending practices

Q: What are the interest rates typically offered on P2P loans in India?

A: Interest rates on P2P loans in India are influenced by factors such as the borrower’s creditworthiness, loan amount and loan term, resulting in viability. While they typically exceed traditional bank loan rates, they can be appealing to lenders seeking favourable returns while managing associated risks. 

Q: Are there any alternative dispute resolution mechanisms available?

A: Some P2P lending platforms provide ADR mechanisms such as mediation or arbitration for faster complaint resolution. It is wise to confirm the options offered by your chosen platform. 

Q: Can P2P platforms lend their own money or offer credit guarantees?

A: No, P2P platforms only act as intermediaries between lenders and borrowers and do not have the ability to lend their own money or offer any credit enhancements or guarantees. Their main role is to facilitate the transaction process, connecting individuals or businesses looking for loans with potential lenders. 

Q: Are there limits on how much I can lend or borrow on P2P platforms?

A: Yes, there are limits set by the RBI:

  • Lending Limits: Lenders are restricted from lending over 10 lakh rupees cumulatively across all P2P platforms in India and are also limited to lending a maximum of 50,000 rupees to a single borrower across all platforms. These lending limits are imposed to ensure responsible lending practices and to protect both lenders and borrowers from potential risks. 
  • Borrowing Limits: A borrower’s maximum borrowing limit across all P2P platforms is set at 10 lakh rupees and they are also restricted from borrowing more than 50,000 from a single lender across all platforms. 

Q: Does RBI allow P2P platforms to offer any investment products?

A: RBI regulations limit P2P platforms to offering only loan-specific insurance as investment products, preventing them from becoming a comprehensive financial product provider and maintaining their focus on facilitating P2P lending. This restriction ensures that P2P platforms do not deviate from their core function and protects investors from exposure to a wide range of financial products.



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